As an in-memory computing vendor, we’ve found that our products often get confused with some popular open-source, in-memory technologies. Perhaps the three technologies we are most often confused with are Spark/Spark Streaming, Storm, and complex event processing (CEP). These innovative technologies are great at what they’re built for, but in-memory data grids (IMDGs) were created for a distinct use case. In this blog post, we will take a look at how IMDGs differ from Spark and Spark Streaming.
The Basics: IMDGs Provide Fast, Scalable, and Highly Available Data Storage
IMDGs host data in memory and distribute it across a cluster of commodity servers. Using an object-oriented data storage model, they provide APIs for updating data objects typically in well under a millisecond (depending on the size of the object). This enables operational systems to use IMDGs for storing, accessing, and updating fast-changing data, while maintaining fast access times even as the storage workload grows. For example, an e-commerce website can store session state and shopping carts within an IMDG, and a financial services application can store stock portfolios. In both cases, stored data must be frequently updated and accessed.
Data storage needs can easily grow as more users store data within an IMDG. IMDGs accommodate this growth by adding servers to the cluster and automatically rebalancing stored data across the servers. This ensures that both capacity and throughput grow linearly with the size of the workload and that access and update times remain low regardless of the workload’s size.
Moreover, IMDGs maintain stored data with high availability using data replication. They typically create one or more replicas of each data object on different servers so that they can continue to access all stored data even after a server (or network component) fails; they do not have to pause to recreate data after a failure. IMDGs also self-heal to automatically create new replicas during recovery. All of this is critically important to operational systems which must continuously handle access and update requests without delay.
IMDGs Add Data-Parallel Computation for Analytics
Because IMDGs store data in memory distributed across a cluster of servers, they easily can perform data-parallel computations on stored data; they simply make use of the cluster’s processing power to analyze data “in place,” that is, without the need to migrate it to other servers. This enables IMDGs to provide fast results with minimum overhead. For example, a recent demonstration of ScaleOut hServer running a MapReduce calculation for a financial services application generated analysis results in about 330 milliseconds compared to 15+ seconds for Apache Hadoop.
A significant aspect of the IMDG’s architecture for data analytics is that it performs its computations on data hosted in memory – not on an incoming data stream. This memory-based storage is continuously updated by an incoming data stream, so the computation has access to the latest changes to the data. However, the computation also has access to the history of changes as manifested by the state of the data stored in the grid. This gives the computation a much richer data set for performing an analysis than it would have if it could only see the incoming data stream. We call it “stateful” real-time analytics.
Take a look at the following diagram, which illustrates the architecture for ScaleOut Analytics Server and ScaleOut hServer. The diagram shows a stream of incoming changes which are applied to the grid’s memory-based data store using API updates. The real-time analytics engine performs data parallel computation on the stored data, combines the results across the cluster, and outputs a combined stream of alerts to the operational system.
The power of stateful analytics is that the computation can provide deeper insights than otherwise. For example, an e-commerce website can analyze not just browser actions but also interpret these actions in terms of a history of customer preferences and shopping history to offer feedback. Likewise, a financial services application can analyze market price fluctuations to determine trading strategies based on the trading histories for individual portfolios tuned after several trades and influenced by preferences.
Comparison to Spark
The Berkeley Spark project has developed a data-parallel execution engine designed to accelerate Hadoop MapReduce calculations (and add related operators) by staging data in memory instead of by moving it from disk to memory and back for each operator. Using this technique and other optimizations, it has demonstrated impressive performance gains over Hadoop MapReduce. This project’s stated goal (quoting from a tutorial slide deck from U.C. Berkeley’s amplab is to “extend the MapReduce model to better support two common classes of analytics apps: iterative algorithms (machine learning, graphs) [and] interactive data mining [and] enhance programmability: integrate into Scala programming language.”
A key new mechanism that supports Spark’s programming model is the resilient distributed dataset (RDD) to “allow apps to keep working sets in memory for efficient reuse.” They are “immutable, partitioned collections of objects created through parallel transformations.” To support fault tolerance, “RDDs maintain lineage information that can be used to reconstruct lost partitions.”
You can see the key differences between using an IMDG hosting data-parallel computation and Spark to perform MapReduce and similar analyses. IMDGs analyze updatable, highly available, memory-based collections of objects, and this makes them ideal for operational environments in which data is being constantly updated even while analytics computations are ongoing. In contrast, Spark was designed to create, analyze, and transform immutable collections of data hosted in memory. This makes Spark ideal for optimizing the execution of a series of analytics operators.
The following diagram illustrates Spark’s use of memory-hosted RDDs to hold data accessed by its analytics engine:
However, Spark is not well suited to operational environments for two reasons. First, data cannot be updated. In fact, if Spark inputs data from HDFS, changes have to propagated to HDFS from another data source since HDFS files only can be appended, not updated. Second, RDDs are not highly available. Their fault-tolerance results from reconstructing them from their recorded lineage, which may take substantially more time to complete than server failover by an IMDG. This represents an appropriate tradeoff for Spark because, unlike IMDGs, it focuses on analytics computations on data that does not need to be constantly available.
Even though Spark makes different design tradeoffs than IMDGs to support fast analytics, IMDGs can still deliver comparable speedup over Hadoop. For example, we measured Apache Spark executing the well-known Hadoop “word count” benchmark on a 4-server cluster running 9.6X faster than CDH5 Hadoop MapReduce for a 10 GB dataset hosted in HDFS. On this same benchmark, ScaleOut hServer ran 14X faster than Hadoop when executing standard Java MapReduce code.
What about Spark Streaming?
Spark Streaming extends Spark to handle streams of input data and was motivated by the need to “process large streams of live data and provide results in near-real-time” (quoting from the slide deck referenced above). It “run[s] a streaming computation as a series of very small, deterministic batch jobs” by chopping up an input stream into a sequence of RDDs which it feeds to Spark’s execution engine. “The processed results of the RDD operations are returned in batches.” Computations can create or update other RDDs in memory which hold information regarding the state or history of the stream.
The representation of input and output streams as RDDs can be illustrated as follows:
This model of computation overcomes Spark’s basic limitation of working only on immutable data. Spark Streaming offers stateful operators that enable incoming data to be combined with in-memory state. However, it employs a distinctly stream-oriented approach with parallel operators that does not match the typical, object-oriented usage model of asynchronous, individual updates to memory-based objects implemented by IMDGs for operational environments. It also uses Spark’s fault-tolerance which does not support high availability for individual objects.
For example, IMDGs apply incoming changes to individual objects within a stateful collection by using straightforward object updates, and they simultaneously run data-parallel operations on the collection as a whole to perform analytics. We theorize that when using Spark Streaming, the same computation would require that each collection of updates represented by an incoming RDD be applied to the appropriate subset of objects within another “stateful” RDD held in memory. This in turn would require that the two RDDs be aligned to perform a parallel operation, which could add complexity to the original algorithm, especially if updates need to be applied to more than one object in the stateful collection. Also, fault-tolerance might require checkpointing to disk since the collection’s lineage could grow lengthy over time.
IMDGs offer a platform for scalable, memory-based storage and data-parallel computation which was specifically designed for use in operational systems, such as the ones we looked at above. Because it incorporates API support for accessing and updating individual data objects with integrated high availability, IMDGs are easily integrated into the business logic of these systems. Although Spark and Spark Streaming, with their use of memory-based storage and accelerated MapReduce execution times, bear a resemblance to IMDGs such as ScaleOut hServer, they were not intended for use in operational systems and do not provide the feature set needed to make this feasible. We will take a look at how IMDGs differ from Storm and CEP in an upcoming blog.